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The green and yellow-skinned gages are effectively a sub-species of European plums, named after Sir William Gage who imported a batch of these trees from France to England in the 18th century. In France they are known as Reine Claude plums, and there are numerous varieties, all closely related.
The origins of Reine Claude Doree are confused but it appears to be one of the oldest forms of French Green Gage, and possibly the ancestor of all modern green gages. It almost certainly pre-dates the spread of Green Gages into the English-speaking world.
It is known to have been grown in south-west France in the 18th century but is thought to be much older.